1. We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose vies contradict our own. Disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning.
2. No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study.
3. Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction-in other words， to make things as simple as possible.
4. Students should memories facts only after they have studied the ideas， trends， and concepts that help explain those facts. Students who have learned only facts have learned very little.
5. Scholars and researches should not be concerned with whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests， however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem.
6. In any academic area or professional field， it is just as important to recognize the limits of our knowledge and understanding as it is to acquire new facts and information.
7. Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes， our inclinations， or the dictates of our passions.
8. Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. They should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively.
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